Offensive and defensive theories of motion, taken from the Eighteen Postures, were used to construct
Forms that are designed to be worked by two and three people simultaneously. These Two-Person and
Three-Person Forms incorporate the combative and self defense applications unique to the Kojosho System.
They discuss the elements of rhythm, timing, and distance that are essential to achieve effective technique.
They also demonstrate the necessity for the combative attitudes of motivation, strategy, and commitment,
which must precede technique.
The Forms are the basic textbooks of the Kojosho System. They demonstrate to all students who study
them the sequence of threat and reaction and the necessity for physical, mental, and spiritual discipline.
As advanced, black belt students continue to study, they are gradually introduced to the concept of the
Third Person, a series of Forms that work between the Two-Person Forms, defending against an attacker
while simultaneously attacking a defender.
Tora, the Tiger, and Tsuru, the Crane, make up the first two-person set, and
they incorporate the essential principles of attack and defense. To teach
beginning students how to hit hard and to penetrate, the Tiger teaches
students to attack with courage and determination and allows students to take
on the emotional qualities of the Tiger. Conversely, in order to teach
beginning students to defend effectively, the Crane teaches students to
respond with discipline and precision, encouraging students to take on the
emotional qualities of the Crane. Together, the Tiger and the Crane are an
expression of offense and defense and the pulsating nature of the sphere of
combat. What is initially aggressive must later yield, and what starts out
defensively must ultimately counter. Students must learn to attack totally
and defend completely and must allow their energy to flow unimpeded between
the opposite poles of aggression and defense.
Kyü Senjutsu, the Nine Maneuvers and, Kakure Yöso, the Hidden Element, are
the more modern names for the Snake (Hebi) and the Hawk (Taka), the second
two-person set. While the first two-person set discusses the single
technique, the Nine Maneuvers and the Hidden Element teach combination
effectiveness and how to attack and defend while using multiple techniques.
The Nine Maneuvers teach the attributes and emotional qualities of the
Snake, which uses deadly strikes, circular as well as linear motion, and
continuation of technique to win. The Snake knows how to coil to store up
energy and when to release that pent-up energy in a strike. Conversely, the
Hidden Element demonstrates the characteristics of the Hawk, which flies
elusively and attacks suddenly, absorbing blows and counterattacking. The
Hawk knows how to overcome the instability of flight and offset the initial
size disadvantage with the superiority of speed. Together, the Nine
Maneuvers and the Hidden Element are an expression of the effectiveness of
multiple attacks and the necessity to defend with light, speedy movements,
redirecting instead of opposing the attacks. These forms equip students to
deal with the sophisticated opponent.
Chöyö No Kata, The Positive Long Form and Chöin No Kata, the Negative Long
Form, are the more modern names for the Dragon (Ryu) and Deer (Shika), the
third two-person set. They introduce the principles of continuous motion,
action, and reaction in a circular flow. The Positive Long Form is a song
of the Dragon. The Dragon incorporates the Tiger, Crane, Snake, and Hawk
and is the complete warrior, favoring no particular weapon, yet utilizing
all things as weapons. The Positive Long Form presents the emotional
attributes of the Dragon. The Form trains students to fight like the
Dragon, valiant and shrewd, smothering the opponents under a continuous
barrage of circular techniques. The Negative Long Form presents a smooth
impenetrable defense. Using the alertness, awareness, and swiftness of the
Deer, this Form teaches students to tempt the opponent into overreaching
and then to counterattack the overextended opponent at odd angles, not
opposing force with force, but intersecting outside the opponent's
power curve. Together, the Positive and Negative Long Form examine the
strengths and weakness of circular motion; and from the study of these
Forms, students learn to find and exploit the flaws in the technical
structure of the superior opponent.
The concept of the Third Person interposes the Leopard (Hyo) between the
Tiger and the Crane, the Monkey (Saru) between the Snake and the Hawk, and
the Bear (Kuma) between the Dragon and the Deer. The Third Person must
attack one while simultaneously blocking the other. Because the
student's two eyes are limited in what they can physically see, the Third
Person must develop the third eye of perception and intuition. Although
understanding of both attacker and defender makes the task easier, still
the Third Person must be able to feel the actions of the opponents with a
sixth sense; and this ability allows the student to move in harmony and
safety between them both. The concept of the Third Person develops the
sensitivity to look with the inner eye and prepares students to face the
Tiger and Crane, Tora and Tsuru, when done joint set (Futari No Kata) are
called Kokaku. Snake and Hawk, Hebi and Taka, are called Jayo. Dragon and
Deer, Ryu and Shika, are called Ryuroku. When Leopard is used to create a
third person scenario, it becomes a Sannin No Kata and named Kokakuhyo.
When Monkey is used the Sannin No Kata is called Jayoen. When Bear is used
the Sannin No Kata is called Ryurokuyu.
The Kojosho Forms are also performed with weapons at the advanced level. The One-Person, Two-Person and even Three-Person forms
all have a weapons training component.
The following is a listing of the weapons used in Kojosho Forms: